The issue dates back to the 1960s. Gen. Ayub Khan, then-president of Pakistan, Gen. Musa, then-commander of the army, and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the country’s foreign minister, had gathered to discuss a crucial matter. They were talking about how India should be included in discussions to resolve the Kashmir issue. Due to the fact that neither Indian Prime Minister Pundit Jowahar Lal Nehru nor his successor Lal Bahadur Shastri were eager to communicate with Pakistan or saw the Kashmir dispute as a source of contention.
Instead, Kashmir had been designated as an integral part of India by the Indian government. Bhutto supported using force to resolve this conflict rather than negotiation. He supported military action, even in the Indian-occupied region of Kashmir. Gen. Musa was a little uneasy when Bhutto suggested a military solution to the Kashmir problem. The Pak Army, according to Gen. Musa, was not prepared for such an assault. Therefore, the issue should be postponed for a year or two. The President had been informed of the perspectives of Gen. Musa and Bhutto. Additionally, they pressed their position in front of the President.
Now it was up to President Ayub to decide what course of action to adopt. because the President had the last say in the matter’s resolution. President Ayub Khan placed more trust in another person’s military knowledge than he did in Gen. Musa and Bhutto. This individual had also meticulously planned his operation. And all he needed was 10 weeks to deploy it. What was this person’s purpose and who was he? I’m Faisal Warriach, and in the first episode of the miniseries on the History of Pakistan by Dekho, Suno, Jano, I’ll show you what had happened in 1965. In 1965, the Ceasefire Line was established along the Line of Control separating Indian-occupied Kashmir from Azad Kashmir.
The 470-mile-long Ceasefire Line was defended by the 12-Division of the Pakistani Army. On Kashmir’s conquered territory, India has stationed an army of more than three divisions. It indicated that the Pakistani army’s numerical strength in that region was less than one-third that of the Indian army. Additionally, since 80% of this force was made up of Azad soldiers, it wasn’t all part of the Pakistani Army. The “Azad Kashmir Regular Force” was the name of the independent army that Azad Kashmir had at the time. The 12-Division oversaw the work of this unit. Additionally, the Azad Force’s training fell short of that of the regular Pakistani Army.
However, education was not the only issue. Additionally, the government did not supply food or uniforms at no expense to the Azad Force. Thus, these arrangements were made independently by the Jawans of this force. In fact, it was so bad that it took years before the Jawans received a promotion. This produced the same outcome as was anticipated. These Jawans’ morale started to deteriorate, and their command and control system broke down. The situation worsened in the 1960s to the point when many Jawans left their postings without any kind of order and made their homes in the cities.
These Jawans were only there to waste time by wandering around. They didn’t care that the enemy would take over their abandoned stations; in fact, the same thing was occurring. The 12-Division had not yet established posts in numerous locations due to its lack of strength. And the troops were leaving the set positions. The Indian army thereupon crossed the Ceasefire Line and started patrolling in Azad Kashmir. The Kashmiris were harassed, detained, and taken back to their stations in Indian-occupied Kashmir by Indian troops. Through threats and greed, the Indians also attempted to utilise the detained Kashmiris as their agents.
In Azad Kashmir, where the checkpoints and Ceasefire Line were staffed, the situation was also not good. As we can see today, Indian shelling on Pakistani posts was regular at the time. The people’s lives were wretched as a result of the Indian shelling, and they were unable to leave their homes. The Indian shelling also resulted in significant human and material losses. The 12-Division’s resource shortage and frailty were caused by Pakistan’s defence strategy. Pakistan’s army decided to simply defend the international border with India after the country’s split.
As the UN had also enacted resolutions and drawn the Ceasefire Line on the disputed territory of Kashmir, this region was assumed to be safe following the international guarantees. The international boundary was a key component of the new strategy developed for the armed forces in 1964. and the defence along the Ceasefire Line received little consideration. Because of this, the Pak Army only sent the 12-Division to the Ceasefire Line guarded by the Azad Army after devoting all of its resources to the international border.
The situation on the Ceasefire Line might have gotten worse due to a lack of supplies and discouraged Jawans. But before that could happen, a new officer was given leadership of the 12-Division. The scene was abruptly altered by this development. General Akhtar Hussain Malik was the member of this committee. On December 5, 1962, Gen. Akhtar Hussain Malik assumed command, reviving the 12-Division. The 12-Division’s commanders paid no attention to it before Gen. Malik. A much more spirited soldier, Gen. Malik, emerged. Before the top brass, he presented a realistic image of his Jawans and asked more money for his Division.
As a result, the Azad Force received the same free clothing and rations as Pakistani army men. The Jawans benefited from Gen. Malik’s efforts by receiving greater pay and promotions. The Jawans’ morale was raised by all of this, and they returned to their posts to more zealously defend the front. Gen. Malik made valiant attempts, but the issue persisted. that numerous border areas were lacking stations due to a lack of soldiers. Therefore, the Indian army had no trouble sneaking into those places. This issue was likewise resolved by Gen. Malik. He ordered the Azad soldiers to engage the Indian intruders and placed them on patrol in that area.
With this action, the Indian incursion into Azad Kashmir was reduced. Gen. Malik considered crossing the Ceasefire Line to engage the enemy after these victories. in order to force India to resolve the Kashmir problem. Gen. Malik found allies in the government who shared his views. And he was Pakistan’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. As was the case with Foreign Minister Bhutto, the Kashmir issue was the largest obstacle. Bhutto openly discussed the need to free Kashmir from Indian rule in order to give the founding of Pakistan value. Currently, Bhutto and Gen.
Ayub Khan was being persuaded by Malik to take a significant action across the Ceasefire Line. When Bhutto and Gen. Malik spoke first, Gen. Ayub did not pay them much attention. Ayub Khan’s interest in a military solution, however, was sparked by India’s continued actions in Kashmir. He therefore took a number of actions. Since the 1949 ceasefire, India has been attempting to incorporate occupied Kashmir into its national identity. In order to provide Kashmiris the opportunity to choose whether they want to be a member of India or Pakistan, Indian Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru reneged on his commitment to hold a plebiscite.
The pro-Indian authority in occupied Kashmir initially supported the Maharaja Hari Singh decision about Kashmir’s accession to India after receiving a signal. Two years after Nehru reversed course on the Kashmir plebiscite, he emphasised Pakistan’s strategic alliance with the United States, which, in his words, had altered the region’s security position. Nehru referred to Pakistan as a Cold War ally of the United States. At the time, India sided with Russia. India therefore believed that if Kashmiris chose Pakistan in the referendum, the regional situation would shift and become more unbalanced.
Nehru therefore believed that the plebiscite on Kashmir in light of the new circumstances was pointless. On January 26, 1957, Kashmir was formally conquered by India on this justification. When all of this was happening in 1957, Gen. Ayub led the Pakistani Army. Pakistan’s President at the time was Sikandar Mirza. India hastened the annexation of Kashmir since Ayub Khan’s takeover of power in 1958. By signing the document, Maharaja Hari Singh officially recognised Kashmir as an independent nation within India.
Defense, communication, and international affairs for Kashmir were to be handled by the Indian government. The people of Kashmir were given responsibility for the remaining matters. However, the Indian government went above and beyond. The Indian Supreme Court’s jurisdiction was expanded to include Occupied Kashmir by 1960. This action was against the criteria for Kashmir’s statehood as a member of India. On October 27, 1963, Indian Home Minister Gulzari Lal Nand informed the Parliament that Kashmir had been fully conquered by India.
The Kashmiris opposed this choice since it was an example of their exploitation, which was not just political but was also leading to emotional issues. The Prophet Muhammad’s (SAW) sacred hair was taken from Sri Nagar’s Hazrat Ball Shrine. Protests on a large scale were held throughout the Indian-controlled portion of Kashmir. Nehru released Sheikh Abdullah from his 11-year prison sentence to soothe the populace. He was detained in 1953 for refusing to accede Kashmir to India as Nehru had wished. Additionally, he had insisted on Kashmir being an independent state. Following Abdullah’s detention, Nehru put in place an administration in Held Kashmir that he preferred.
This administration approved Kashmir’s admission to India. Sheikh Abdullah’s release did not result in any resolution of the Kashmir problem. Sheikh Abdullah also travelled to Pakistan at the president’s request. When Sheikh Abdullah arrived in Rawalpindi in May 1964, he was given a very warm welcome. He was showered with a profusion of flowers and rosewater. Despite the lavish welcome, his presence had no impact. Abdullah also requested a meeting between Ayub Khan and Nehru, but it was not possible. after Nahru passed away on May 27, 1964. Nehru was succeeded as Prime Minister of India by Lal Bahadur Shastri.
Ayub believed that India’s new government would be sincere in its efforts to settle the Kashmir dispute. So, making use of this chance, he sent an invitation to PM Shastri to visit Pakistan. When PM Shastri met with President Ayub Khan in Pakistan, he requested time to take up… settling the significant Kashmir issue by his newly formed government. Ayub Khan gave his approval. However, Lal Bahadur Shastri similarly made a U-turn after returning to India. India began enforcing Articles 356 and 357 of the Constitution in Kashmir on December 21, 1964. The Indian President had the authority to topple the administration in Kashmir under Article 356. While in Kashmir, Article 357 replaced the Chief of the State with a governor and chief minister who were chosen through elections.
Now that Kashmir had lost its independence, it was essentially an Indian subject state. The Shastri government’s action deeply damaged Ayub Khan’s feelings. Ayub Khan now shares Gen. Malik and Bhutto’s desire to resolve the Kashmir issue. That military action was robust. Pakistan was unable to remain silent when India formally annexed Kashmir as its own state. The Pakistani government instructed the powerful Intelligence Bureau (IB) to conduct limited armed operations in Occupied Kashmir. Only gunfire or cracker explosions were allowed across the ceasefire line.
Second, a “Kashmir Cell” was established to develop a Kashmir policy. Aziz Ahmad, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, was chosen to lead this Cell. However, the Director of the IB, the Secretary of Defense, and others also attended Cell meetings. the Director of Military Operations or the Chief of General Staff The Cell was tasked with formulating rigorous recommendations for Kashmir. Thirdly, Pakistan gave the 12-Division permission to engage in more aggressive actions on the Ceasefire Line against India. that no Indian should get away with crossing the Line. The Pakistani administration carried out every decision.
However, India did not experience the pressure Pakistan had anticipated. In contrast, India increased security in occupied Kashmir in reaction to the IB’s small-scale efforts. This made people’s lives in occupied Kashmir even more difficult and wretched. Political and military circles in Pakistan have now started to plan a significant covert military operation in Held Kashmir with the intention of devastating India. People who supported this operation believed that if it was successful, the Kashmiris would rise up in opposition, just as they had in 1947 when they rebelled against the Dogra Maharaja Hari Singh.
Because the arrests, frequent curfews, and theft of the Holy Hair had already infuriated the people of Kashmir. However, there was a threat to the operation as well, and both the military and civilian leadership were aware of it. They were aware that the Pak Army or the Azad Force would face a harsh international response if they violated the Ceasefire Line. Pakistan participated in the US-led Seato and Cento coalitions against Russia. As a result, it was likely to face intense pressure on a global scale. There was also a worry that India may strike Punjab and Sindh along the international border in addition to Kashmir by using Pakistan’s incursion into Occupied Kashmir as an excuse.
Field Marshal Ayub Khan, the president, did not want an all-out conflict with India. Gen. Musa, Commander-in-Chief, concurred with him. Gen. Musa charged Z.A.Bhutto with avoiding him by meeting in secret with Gen. Malik and other army officers. President Ayub was criticised by Gen. Musa for looking into Bhutto’s private talks with army officers. He also requested two years to take very limited action in Kashmir. He claimed that the Pakistani Army was not ready to intervene immediately in Kashmir. He gave two explanations for it. One was that Pakistan’s military might was greater than half that of India’s. Second, Pakistan purchased foreign weapons when India had a robust defence sector.
India would therefore be better off in a war situation. Gen. Malik promoted “now or never” on Kashmir in opposition to Gen. Musa’s narrative. Malik claimed that passing up this chance meant permanently losing Kashmir. President Ayub Khan had the final say. Gen. Ayub Khan was well aware of the risky repercussions of any action taken across the ceasefire line. As a result, he was a little hesitant to approve Operation in Kashmir. But something happened that made him completely rethink his position. He decided to take action against India as a result of this incident. In Runn of Kuch, which is on the boundary between Pakistan’s Sindh province and India’s Gujrat province, the two forces engaged in a bloody battle in April 1965. Biyarbet and another bordering Indian station were taken by Pakistani forces.
For India, it was a glaring defeat. In addition to failing to take back its positions, India adopted a defensive posture and dared not open any additional fronts. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the Indian prime minister, has threatened to create new fronts against Pakistan. But despite his threat, nothing happened. India was compelled to accept a new boundary for the region as a result of the Runn of Kuch loss. As a result, 800 square miles of Indian territory are still part of Pakistan today. The victory over India warmed President Ayub’s heart. He therefore anticipated a similar muted response from India if Pakistan also intervened in Kashmir.
that India wouldn’t confront Pakistan on the global stage. Gen. Malik informed the military command on May 9, 1965, that if the operation in Kashmir was immediately approved, he would be able to commence a guerilla offensive within 10 weeks, by the beginning of August. that if the approval was delayed, the entire operation would be put off until May 1966. Six days after Malik had sent the letter on May 9, General Ayub and General Musa visited the 12-Division headquarters in Murree. They were briefed on this mission by Gen. Malik, and they then gave their approval.
Operation Gibraltar was the name of the three-phased operation. To weaken India’s civil and military grip over Occupied Kashmir, guerrilla force was to first enter the region. This force was supposed to assist Kashmiris in starting an armed uprising against India in the second phase. To regain control of this region, Pakistani and Azad forces were to march into Kashmir, which was held by India, in the third. This was anticipated. The force under General Akhtar Hussain Malik’s command was instructed to prepare for this operation on May 17.
Additionally, he requested crucial information from the IB, ISI, and MI regarding the targets in occupied Kashmir. Operation Gibraltar preparations were well under way. The Azad Force and Pakistani Army personnel were prepared to cross the cease-fire line at any time. And so they did. What took place next? You will be shown the dramatic reports of this significant Operation before to the 1965 Indo-Pak War in the upcoming episode of History of Pakistan’s miniseries on “What had transpired in 1965.” Here is the story of the Ottoman Empire’s golden age before you head here to learn more about the Kargil War. Here are the authentic, spellbinding tales of the Sicilian mafia.Contact Us