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Progress or disaster under Ayub Khan’s reign?

Martial law was first imposed in Pakistan. Ayub Khan became known throughout Pakistan. He was the first autocrat to assert that the populace was immature and unable to exercise its right to vote. The EBDO and PRODA statutes are examples of how his hate of democracy and politicians was manifested. Thousands of politicians, including Feroz Khan and Hussain Shaheed Sohrvardi, were barred from office for seven years as a result of this legislation. They were allegedly disqualified due to allegations of nun corruption. When a politician is disqualified due to corruption allegations or labelled a security risk even today,

There is a belief that history repeats itself. Ayub Khan created a constitution on his own accord after disqualifying politicians. He then announced the 1965 election under that constitution. Ayub’s powerlust was so obvious that he ran for president and was president of the PML. Because all the significant politicians were disqualified due to a variety of allegations, there was no politician left running. The opposition was severely split. Ayub Khan thought he would win easily because of his high popularity, but the opposition pulled off a brilliant ruse and nominated someone to run for president in his place. Under those conditions,

She was Pakistan’s only ray of hope. Fatima Jinnah was feared by General Ayub Khan. There is no doubt that Fatima Jinnah enjoyed popularity in both East and West Pakistan. However, Ayub Khan launched a campaign of character assassination against Ms. Jinnah instead of a healthy rivalry. Ms. Jinnah was labelled an Indian traitor and agent. Ayub Khan won the contentious election of 1965, which was rigged. Ayub Khan is a public figure who has suffered greatly from injustice. Nationwide demonstrations against Ayub Khan began. And protests against Ayub began in Pakistan’s streets after two incidences that had an impact on the economy.

It was a political setback for Ayub the first instance was the war in September 1965, when Pakistan successfully defended against an invasion by India. America became upset with Pakistan as a result. Because of their agreement with the US, Pakistan agreed not to employ American weaponry against India. The second occurrence was the Tashkent Agreement, which gave the impression that Ayub had lost a war that had actually been won on the ground. Both of these events, along with the rigging against Ms. Fatima Jinnah, were deadly to the Ayub era. When he was foreign minister, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto used to refer to him as “daddy.” But when Bhutto observed a change in the situation,

He followed the rules of the power game. He used the animosity of the populace toward Ayub. He was the most well-liked leader in West Pakistan when he created the PPP, the country’s first public party. Army Chief General Yahya compelled Ayub to resign in 1969. The ten years that Ayub Khan ruled Pakistan for were crucial in the country’s history. He ruled for ten years and six months. Pakistan initially sided with the U.S. throughout those years. Pakistan saw several promising outcomes. aided by Americans

For the first time, Pakistan began construction on large dams like Mangla and Turbella. Boosting agriculture and industries The army strengthened. Pakistan’s wheat production has reached self-sufficiency. Relations with China have improved, as have the banking industry’s conditions. But Ayub Khan’s biggest mistake was that the growing divide between East and West Pakistan during his reign led to the collapse of Dhaka. Ayub Khan accelerated the democratic process while advancing Pakistan’s industry The outcome was easy. US funding ceased, and the economy crashed.

The Tarbela dam’s funding ran out even though the Mangala was finished. Tarbela Dam was finished during Bhutto. How Did Pakistan Break? tells the tale of Pakistan. Who shattered Pakistan? Who was to blame for this disaster, the military or politicians?

Who is to blame for the Dhaka Fall?

President Ayub Khan was forced to retire in March 1969, and General Yahya took over as Chief Martial Law Administrator while also serving as Chief of Army Staff and President. General Yahya was aware of all the factors that contributed to Ayub’s demise. He therefore eliminated all restrictions on political parties rather than engaging in conflict with politicians. General Yahya revoked the contentious constitution of Ayub. Yahya conducted Pakistan’s first general election under the one-man, one-vote basis in December 1970.

The elections were billed as being the most transparent in Pakistan’s history, but the outcome was appalling. With 160 seats, Shaikh Mujeeb of Bengal easily won these elections in east Pakistan. However, his political party was unable to secure even a single seat in west Pakistan. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, on the other hand, won 81 seats in West Pakistan. But he was unable to win even one seat in East Pakistan. East Pakistan was ruled by Shaikh Mujib and legally separated from the rest of Pakistan.

He was Pakistan’s next president. It was General Yahya’s duty to hand him the reins of authority. Yahya convened the National Assembly conference in Dhaka on 1 February 1971 to address this. It was a historic occasion as East Pakistan’s leaders were voted to lead Pakistan, but Bhutto declined to attend the gathering. In addition to declining, the person made the threat that “anyone going to this meeting, I will break his legs” Bhutto disagrees with Sheikh Mujib on six areas. Sheikh Mujib’s six criteria were opposed to an unified Pakistan, according to Bhutto. However, political experts believe that notwithstanding all criticism,

Bhutto ought to have gone to the conference. Yahya postponed the national assembly meeting after Bhutto put pressure on him to do so. The people of East Pakistan were incensed by this postponement. Bengalis interpreted this to mean that the ruling class in western Pakistan does not want to hand over control to the country’s eastern wing. East Pakistani civil disobedience movement With the assistance of Mukti Bahni, India, which was looking for any opportunity, began an armed insurrection. Bahni’s armed organisations began assaulting the Pakistan Army.

& those who support west Pakistan This was Pakistan’s last chance to be saved, and if the national assembly had convened and the election winner had been given the reins at that time—even though it was not currently easy—then perhaps the course of Pakistan’s history might have been different. However, General Yahya missed the chance and instead launched a military operation to put an end to the insurgency. All political parties, including Bhutto, backed this military intervention in the past; this is a historical fact. The Pakistani Army put an end to Mukti Bahni’s uprising in 9 months, but this military operation left an unbridgeable gap of animosity. As opposed to that,

India invaded East Pakistan after realising the plot had failed. The Pakistani army was surrounded on all sides. Geographically speaking, the enemy had taken the supply line and the Pak arm was more than 1,000 kilometres from the centre. Army of Pakistan has no supply routes. Additionally, East Pakistani territory was no longer ours. The wall bore witness to the defeat. However, the Pakistani Army battled valiantly. thousands of young troops killed in combat,

however, it was a lost cause that could only be fought, not won. That’s what took place. The most embarrassing defeat in Pakistan’s history occurred, and 90,000 Pakistani soldiers were taken prisoner by India. Although it is difficult to single out one person for this disaster because there were so many factors involved, if we were to name one man who could have saved Pakistan but wasn’t able to, it would be General Yahya because, as president and commander in chief, Yahya had a duty to transfer power to the election winner. As a result, west Pakistan was still Pakistan. But because he didn’t, it doesn’t follow that Yahya alone is to blame for the east Pakistan fiasco.

Since years of time nurture occurrences, Even without the abrupt fall of Dhaka, Yahya’s downfall was demonstrated. General Yahya simply handed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto the reins of power by signing a piece of paper. Bhutto then assumed control of the constitution assembly and the role of Chief Martial Law Administrator. General Yahya was placed under house arrest once he assumed control. General Yahya spends his final years primarily behind house confinement After Bhutto’s death a year prior, this pivotal figure in the Dhaka scandal fell apart on the opposing side, when newly founded Bangladesh experienced one military takeover after another. even after a separation of four years

Young military officers murdered Sheikh Mujib. Thus, all three of the Dhaka debacle’s main characters passed away within ten years. A commission was established to investigate this catastrophe. This panel was led by Justice Hamood-u-Rehman, the Chief Justice of Pakistan from Bengal. Who was accountable for the Dhaka disaster, according to the comprehensive report this Commission prepared? also had definitions in this report. Additionally, variables were identified. When Bhutto was in power, this report was finished.

However, the report was never published because of political reasons and is still unpublished today. Although some of it was published in India, Pakistan never saw a public appearance of it. What kind of pressure did Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto put on India to get the POWs back? is the focus of Pakistan’s story. How was it possible for General Zia ul Haq to impose yet another martial law? knowing this

How Z A Bhutto released prisoners of war from India

For a few months, the country was under martial law following the catastrophe in East Pakistan. Bhutto oversaw the martial law era and presided over the constitutional assembly. India conquered 1300 square kilometres of Pakistan and its 90,000 POWs. Bhutto signed the Shimla Agreement with India to address these problems. He was successful in recovering 13,000 square kilometres from India during negotiations. Currently, there were 90,000 prisoners of war. Through China, Bhutto was able to block Bangladesh at the UN. Bhutto warned India, saying that if it released POWs,

China won’t oppose Bangladesh in the UN This pressure was successful, and 90000 inmates from Pakistan returned home. Pakistan abandoned the SETO and SENTO agreements in 1970 as a result of the United States’ failure to assist it. But Pakistan needed strong allies throughout the world. Bhutto began creating an alliance of Islamic nations in response to this. A summit of Muslim nations was convened in Lahore in 1974. The following year, Pakistan recognised Pakistan, and new diplomatic ties were established between the two nations. Bhutto’s greatest accomplishment was a unanimously ratified constitution that gave the PM more authority.

and Bhutto was elected as the country’s first prime minister. The nationalisation of industry was another significant development under Bhutto’s rule, however even though this decision backfired and companies began to suffer from a lack of support for industrial growth, Bhutto cultivated better ties with Russia and enlisted its assistance. Pakistan During this time, steel mills were also established, and the Tarbela Dam project from the Ahub period was also finished. The establishment of the nuclear programme was Bhutto’s second big accomplishment after the Constitution.

His catchphrase, “will eat grass, but produce an atom bomb,” was well-known to the general public, but his actions, such as blocking Islamic nations’ atomic programmes, infuriated the United States. Henry Kissinger, the US Secretary of State, threatened him with severe consequences. Elections were slated for 1978, but Bhutto was encouraged to hold them earlier because his popularity was at its zenith and he would be able to rule for the following five years. This mistake was made in his final days. To confront Bhutto in the election, the opposition PNA coalition came together.

Bhutto won with 155 seats, while the opposition secured 36. The PPP triumphed, but the opposition PNA claimed that the elections had been manipulated. This political movement eventually became religious. As a result of this movement, Zia arrived, declaring that “Bhutto’s government is over, martial law has been imposed in the entire country,” “the national and provincial assemblies are dissolved,” “provincial governor and the minister have been removed,” and that “the protests against rigging turned into Tehreek e Nizam e Mustafa.” Bhutto had had a high regard for Zia ul Haq. The irony of history is that Zia betrayed Bhutto just as Ayub trusted Bhutto and Sikandar Mirza trusted Ayub.

There is no weaponry, naming ethics, in the struggle of power, yet it is true that Bhutto betrayed Ayub and Ayub betrayed Sikandar Mirza. Zia detained Bhutto while imposing martial law. Bhutto was found guilty of the murder of Raza Kasuri but only received a death sentence. When Bhutto was hanged in the Rawalpindi District Jail on 4 April 1979, Raza Kasuri, the father of Musharraf’s close friend Ahmed Raza Kasuri, cruelty was at its height. Even during the farewell meeting, the father was not permitted to embrace his daughter, and after the execution, no relative was given the opportunity to see the dead. Bhutto

Bhutto’s judicial death is now, however, seen as a judicial killing. Why did Russia turn against Pakistan when it was supposed to be a close ally during the Bhutto administration? How did Pakistan’s culture of terrorism and drug use evolve? How did Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif enter Pakistani politics? Watch the upcoming episode to learn more, and remember to subscribe. Suno, Jano, and Dekho If you found this video to be informative, please comment, like, and share. In order to make this series even better, we can continue it.Contact Us

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